Associative Arrays
Numerical Keys

Associative arrays can use integers as keys, in addition to strings.

$num_array = [1000 => "one thousand", 100 => "one hundred", 600 => "six hundred"]; echo $num_array[1000]; // Prints: one thousand

When we build ordered arrays in PHP, the association with numerical keys to values is done for us automatically. The first element is associated with the key 0, the second with 1, and so on. But ordered arrays are still the same structure as associative arrays. We can mix and match:

$ordered = [99, 1, 7, 8]; $ordered["special"] = "Cool!"; echo $ordered[3]; // Prints: 8 echo $ordered["special"]; // Prints: Cool!

When we add an element to an array without specifying a key (e.g. using array_push()), PHP will associate it with the “next” integer key. If no integer keys have been used, it will associate it with the key 0, otherwise it will associate it one more than the largest integer used thus far. This behavior is the same whether the array is being used as an ordered array or an associative array. Let’s look at an example:

$num_array = [1000 => "one thousand", 100 => "one hundred", 600 => "six hundred"]; $num_array[] = "New Element in \$num_array"; echo $num_array[1001]; // Prints: New Element in $num_array $animals_array = ["panda"=>"very cute", "lizard"=>"cute", "cockroach"=>"not very cute"]; array_push($animals_array, "New Element in \$animals_array"); echo $animals_array[0]; // Prints: New Element in $animals_array

Even though associative arrays and ordered arrays are technically the same, we recommend treating them as separate data types. Only use the empty square brackets syntax (or functions like array_push()) with ordered arrays.

But, for now, let’s break this rule a little to get used to the ins and outs of PHP arrays!



Create an ordered array named $hybrid_array. It should have four elements which can be any values you’d like.


You’re going to add a key=>value pair to $hybrid_array. The value you add should be "five more" and it should be associated to an integer key equal to five more than the largest integer key already in use in $hybrid_array.

Use the print_r() function to print $hybrid_array and confirm all the key=>value pairs are what you expect.


This time, you’re going to add a random number to the array using the array_push() function. Don’t use any additional variables to accomplish this task. Instead, you should push rand() directly.

What do you think the key associated with the random value is?


Use echo and array indexing to print out the random number value you added to $hybrid_array.

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