This keyword argument unpacking syntax can be used even if the function takes other parameters. However, the parameters must be listed in this order:

  • All named positional parameters
  • An unpacked positional parameter (*args)
  • All named keyword parameters
  • An unpacked keyword parameter (**kwargs)

Here’s a function with all possible types of parameter:

def main(filename, *args, user_list=None, **kwargs): if user_list is None: user_list = [] if '-a' in args: user_list = all_users() if kwargs.get('active'): user_list = [user for user_list if user.active] with open(filename) as user_file: user_file.write(user_list)

Looking at the signature of main() we define four different kinds of parameters. The first, filename is a normal required positional parameter. The second, *args, is all positional arguments given to a function after that organized as a tuple in the parameter args. The third, user_list, is a keyword parameter with a default value. Lastly, **kwargs is all other keyword arguments assembled as a dictionary in the parameter kwargs.

A possible call to the function could look like this:

main("files/users/userslist.txt", "-d", "-a", save_all_records=True, user_list=current_users)

In the body of main() these arguments would look like this:

  • filename == "files/users/userslist.txt"
  • args == ('-d', '-a)
  • user_list == current_users
  • kwargs == {'save_all_records': True}

We can use all four of these kinds of parameters to create functions that handle a lot of possible arguments being passed to them.



In script.py you’ll find the function remove() has three parameters: the required positional filename, the arbitrary positional args, and the arbitrary keyword kwargs.

Before returning the text, we want to remove all arguments passed as positional arguments from the text. Using text.replace() change every arg in args into an empty string "".


Now iterate over every kwarg and replacement in kwargs.items() (recall this is how to iterate over key-value pairs in a dictionary).

Replace every instance of kwarg with replacement in text.


Now remove the bottom comment and see the text of Robin Hood; Being A Complete History Of All The Notable And Merry Exploits Performed By Him And His Men, On Many Occasions. by William Darton transformed!

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