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Conditionals and Control Flow

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else Statement

The else statement executes a block of code when the condition inside the if statement is false. The else statement is always the last condition.

boolean condition1 = false; if (condition1){ System.out.println("condition1 is true"); } else{ System.out.println("condition1 is not true"); } // Prints: condition1 is not true

else if Statements

else-if statements can be chained together to check multiple conditions. Once a condition is true, a code block will be executed and the conditional statement will be exited.

There can be multiple else-if statements in a single conditional statement.

int testScore = 76; char grade; if (testScore >= 90) { grade = 'A'; } else if (testScore >= 80) { grade = 'B'; } else if (testScore >= 70) { grade = 'C'; } else if (testScore >= 60) { grade = 'D'; } else { grade = 'F'; } System.out.println("Grade: " + grade); // Prints: C

if Statement

An if statement executes a block of code when a specified boolean expression is evaluated as true.

if (true) { System.out.println("This code executes"); } // Prints: This code executes if (false) { System.out.println("This code does not execute"); } // There is no output for the above statement

Nested Conditional Statements

A nested conditional statement is a conditional statement nested inside of another conditional statement. The outer conditional statement is evaluated first; if the condition is true, then the nested conditional statement will be evaluated.

boolean studied = true; boolean wellRested = true; if (wellRested) { System.out.println("Best of luck today!"); if (studied) { System.out.println("You are prepared for your exam!"); } else { System.out.println("Study before your exam!"); } } // Prints: Best of luck today! // Prints: You are prepared for your exam!

AND Operator

The AND logical operator is represented by &&. This operator returns true if the boolean expressions on both sides of the operator are true; otherwise, it returns false.

System.out.println(true && true); // Prints: true System.out.println(true && false); // Prints: false System.out.println(false && true); // Prints: false System.out.println(false && false); // Prints: false

NOT Operator

The NOT logical operator is represented by !. This operator negates the value of a boolean expression.

boolean a = true; System.out.println(!a); // Prints: false System.out.println(!true) // Prints: true

The OR Operator

The logical OR operator is represented by ||. This operator will return true if at least one of the boolean expressions being compared has a true value; otherwise, it will return false.

System.out.println(true || true); // Prints: true System.out.println(true || false); // Prints: true System.out.println(false || true); // Prints: true System.out.println(false || false); // Prints: false

Conditional Operators - Order of Evaluation

If an expression contains multiple conditional operators, the order of evaluation is as follows: Expressions in parentheses -> NOT -> AND -> OR.

boolean foo = true && (!false || true); // true /* (!false || true) is evaluated first because it is contained within parentheses. Then !false is evaluated as true because it uses the NOT operator. Next, (true || true) is evaluation as true. Finally, true && true is evaluated as true meaning foo is true. */

DeMorgan’s Laws

DeMorgan’s Laws can be used to rewrite expressions complex boolean expressions.

The first law states that two expressions that are negated together and compared using && is equivalent to two separately negated expressions compared with ||.

The second law states that two expressions that are compared with || and are negated together are equivalent to two separately negated expressions compared with &&.

int a = 2; int b = 3; boolean exp1 = !(a > b && a == b); // rewrite using first law exp1 = !(a > b) || !(a == b); boolean exp2 = !(a < b || a != b); // rewrite using second law exp2 = !(a < b) && !(a != b);

Equivalent Boolean Expressions

Equivalent boolean expressions are separate boolean expressions that always result in the same value.

If we were to replace a boolean expression in a program with an equivalent boolean expression, there would be no impact on the output of the program.

int a = 1; int b = 2; // the followning expressions are equivalent boolean exp1 = !(a == b && b >= a); boolean exp2 = !(a == b) || !(b >= a); boolean exp3 = a != b || a < b; System.out.println(exp1); // Prints: true System.out.println(exp2); // Prints: true System.out.println(exp3); // Prints: true

Compare Object References

Boolean expressions allow us to compare object references. A Boolean expression is a Java expression that, when evaluated, returns a Boolean value: true or false.

a.equals(b) a.equals(b) && b.equals(c)

Comparing Primitive Values

We can use relational operators, such as == and !=, to compare primitive and reference values.

class ComparingPrimitives { public static void main(String[] args) { System.out.println("Comparing ints:"); System.out.println(4 == 5); // print false System.out.println(4 != 5); // print true System.out.println(4 == 4); // print true System.out.println("Comparing chars:"); System.out.println('a' == 'b'); // print false System.out.println('a' != 'b'); // print true System.out.println('a' == 'a'); // print true } }

Object Reference Aliases

An alias means that more than one reference is tied to the same object.

class ComparingAliases { public static void main(String[] args) { String farmAnimal1 = new String("cat"); String farmAnimal2 = new String("cow"); // farmAnimal3 references the same object as farmAnimal2 String farmAnimal3 = farmAnimal2; // comparing different objects System.out.println(farmAnimal1 == farmAnimal2); // print false // comparing object aliases System.out.println(farmAnimal2 == farmAnimal3); // print true } }

Comparing Object Reference Aliases

We can compare object reference values can be compared, using == and !=, to identify aliases.

class ComparingAliases { public static void main(String[] args) { String farmAnimal1 = new String("cat"); String farmAnimal2 = new String("cow"); String farmAnimal3 = farmAnimal2; // comparing different objects System.out.println(farmAnimal1 == farmAnimal2); // print false // comparing object aliases System.out.println(farmAnimal2 == farmAnimal3); // print true } }

Comparing Reference Values with Null

We can compare a reference value with null, using == or !=, to determine if the reference actually references an object.

class Main { public static void main(String[] args) { String word = null; // checking that `word != null` avoids NullPointerException error if (word != null && word.indexOf("a") >= 0) { System.out.println(word + " contains an a."); } } }

Custom Class Equals Method

Classes often have their own equals method, which can be used to determine whether two objects of the class are equivalent.

class Pet { public String name; public String breed; public Pet (String name, String breed) { this.name = name; this.breed = breed; } // custom `equals()` method public boolean equals(Pet p) { return (p.name == name && p.breed == breed); } public static void main(String[] args) { Pet pet1 = new Pet("Air Bud", "Golden Retriever"); Pet pet2 = new Pet("Air Bud", "Golden Retriever"); // compare with `==` System.out.println(pet1 == pet2); // compare with `.equals()` System.out.println(pet1.equals(pet2)); } }