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Variables

A variable refers to a storage location in the computer’s memory that one can set aside to save, retrieve, and manipulate data.

Variables are denoted by a name.

// declare a variable int score; // initialize a variable score = 0;

int Data Type

In C++, int is a type for storing integer (whole) numbers.

int age = 28;

double Data Type

In C++, double is a type for storing floating point (decimal) numbers.

double price = 8.99;

Arithmetic Operators

C++ supports arithmetic operators for:

  • + addition
  • - subtraction
  • * multiplication
  • / division
  • % modulo (yields the remainder)
int x = 0; x = 4 + 2; // x is now 6 x = 4 - 2; // x is now 2 x = 4 * 2; // x is now 8 x = 4 / 2; // x is now 2 x = 4 % 2; // x is now 0

User Input

In C++, std::cin, which stands for “character input”, can read user input from the keyboard.

Here, the user can enter a number, press enter, and that number gets stored in the variable tip.

int tip = 0; std::cout << "Enter amount: "; std::cin >> tip;

Chaining the Output

In C++, std::cout can output multiple values by chaining them using the output operator <<.

Here, the output would be I'm 28.

int age = 28; std::cout << "I'm " << age << ".\n";

char Data Type

In C++, char is a type for storing individual characters. Characters are wrapped in single quotes.

char grade = 'A';

string Data Type

In C++, std::string is a type for storing text strings. Strings are wrapped in double quotes.

std::string message = "good nite";

bool Data Type

In C++, bool is a type for storing true or false boolean values.

bool late_to_work = true;