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Outer Join

An outer join will combine rows from different tables even if the join condition is not met. In a LEFT JOIN, every row in the left table is returned in the result set, and if the join condition is not met, then NULL values are used to fill in the columns from the right table.

SELECT column_name(s) FROM table1 LEFT JOIN table2 ON table1.column_name = table2.column_name;

WITH Clause

The WITH clause stores the result of a query in a temporary table (temporary_movies) using an alias.

Multiple temporary tables can be defined with one instance of the WITH keyword.

WITH temporary_movies AS ( SELECT * FROM movies ) SELECT * FROM temporary_movies WHERE year BETWEEN 2000 AND 2020;

UNION Clause

The UNION clause is used to combine results that appear from multiple SELECT statements and filter duplicates.

For example, given a first_names table with a column name containing rows of data “James” and “Hermione”, and a last_names table with a column name containing rows of data “James”, “Hermione” and “Cassidy”, the result of this query would contain three names: “Cassidy”, “James”, and “Hermione”.

SELECT name FROM first_names UNION SELECT name FROM last_names


The CROSS JOIN clause is used to combine each row from one table with each row from another in the result set. This JOIN is helpful for creating all possible combinations for the records (rows) in two tables.

The given query will select the shirt_color and pants_color columns from the result set, which will contain all combinations of combining the rows in the shirts and pants tables. If there are 3 different shirt colors in the shirts table and 5 different pants colors in the pants table then the result set will contain 3 x 5 = 15 rows.

SELECT shirts.shirt_color, pants.pants_color FROM shirts CROSS JOIN pants;

Foreign Key

A foreign key is a reference in one table’s records to the primary key of another table. To maintain multiple records for a specific row, the use of foreign key plays a vital role. For instance, to track all the orders of a specific customer, the table order (illustrated at the bottom of the image) can contain a foreign key.

foreign key

Inner Join

The JOIN clause allows for the return of results from more than one table by joining them together with other results based on common column values specified using an ON clause. INNER JOIN is the default JOIN and it will only return results matching the condition specified by ON.

SELECT * FROM books JOIN authors ON books.author_id =;

Primary Key

A primary key column in a SQL table is used to uniquely identify each record in that table. A primary key cannot be NULL. In the example, customer_id is the primary key. The same value cannot re-occur in a primary key column. Primary keys are often used in JOIN operations.

primary key

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